Friday, 7 April 2017

Pharmacology of cardiac glycosides

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 02:26 0 comments

what  is  cardiac  glycosides  ?

* Cardiac  glycosides  :-

cardiac  glycosides  are  drugs  ,  that  mostly  used  to  treat  heart  failure  conditions  .  These  cardiac  glycoside  drugs  ,  increase  heart  rate  (HR)  and  treat  to  falling  heart  rate  to  increase .

* Classification  of  cardiac  glycoside  drugs  :-


Following  drugs  are  used  for  cardic  glycoside  ,  such  as  :

(1)  Digitoxin  :-
Digitoxin  is  a  cardiac  glycoside  drug  ,  used  for  treat of

 heart  failure . These  drugs  are  prepared  by  " digitalis  purpurea  (leaf) " .

(2)  Digoxin  :-

Digoxin  is  a  cardiac  drug  ,  prepared  by  "  digitalis  lanata  (leaf)  " .

(3) Other  cardiac  glycoside  drugs  are  :

- Gitoxin
- Thevetin
- Bufotoxin  etc.
These  all  drugs  are  used  as  cardiac  glycosides  .

* Composition  of   cardiac  glycosides  :-


Mostly  these  cardiac  glycoside  drug  are  composed  of  two  portions  like  : 

(1) Sugar  :-

(contain  monosaccharide  ,  polysaccharides  with  beta - 1  ,  4 - glycosidic  linkage  .

(2)  Non - sugar  ( aglycone )  moiety  :
it  contain  ' genin '  .

* Mechanism  of  action  of  cardiac  glycosids  :-

Cardiac  glycoside  are  potent  inhibotor  of  cellular  Na+/K+  ATpase  ( sodium  pump )  .  This  ion  transport  system  moves  Na+  ions  ,  out  of  the  cell  and  brings  K+  ions  into  the  cells  .

* Pharmacological  action  of  cardiac  glycosides  :-

The  following  pharmacological  action  of  cardic  glycosides  are  -
(1) Heart  :-
- Increase  in  myocardial  infraction
- Reduction  in  heart  rate
- ventricular  size  reduce  oxygen  requirement  .
(2) Kidney :-
Decrease  sympthetic  activity  .
(3) Gastrointestinal  tract  ( GIT ) :-
Stimulation  of  CTZ  in  medulla  .
(4) Central  Nervous  Systen  ( CNS )  :-
Visual  disturbance  like  :
- burning  of  vision  ,
- photophobia  .

* Uses  of  cardiac  glycosides  :-

(1) Cardiac  Glycoside  drugs  are  mostly  used  for  treatment  of  heart  failure  .
(2) Reduce  ventricular  rate  .

* Adverse/side  effects  of  cardiac  glycoside  drugs  :-

common  side  effects  of  cardiac  glycoside  drugs  are  :
- Nausea
- Confusion
- Headache
- Vomitting  etc.

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Unani system of Medicine

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 03:33 0 comments

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The 'Unani system of medicine' aims at treating the cause of disease and not its symptoms. This system is based on two theory that is the "Hippocrates Theory" of four Humours and the pythogorian theory of four Proximate qualities.

The four Humours are :
- Blood ,
-Phyllum ,
- Yellow bile and
-Black bile white the four qualities are the states of living human body like :

-Hot ,
-Cold ,
-Moist ,
-Dry .
They are represented as :
-Earth ,
-Water ,
-Fire , and
-Air .

The Greek ideas were put by Arabian Physicians as seven working principles.(Umber -e-Tabia) and included elements , like :

1. Temperaments
2. Humorus
3. Organs
4. Life
5. Spirit
6. Energy and
7. Action

They belived that these principles are responsible for the body constitution is health , as well as , the diseased condition .
The Unani system of medicine aims at 'treating the causes of disease' and not its symptoms . For this purpose through history of the patient is records in addition to his
- Pulse
- Urine and
- Stool examinations.

The disease conditions is considered to be due to the imbalance between humorus and accordingly , treatment is given .
The drug are poly herbal formulation and their collective effect is considered .
Unani system is also known "Arab Medicine " , "Gerco-Arab medicine" , "Lonidh medicine " , "Islamis medicine " and also "Oriental medicine" .

Some examples of Unani medicines :-

These Unani medicines are -
1. Madar
2. Fufal
3. Gilo
4. Kabab chini
5. Karanj
6. Kulthi
7. Lodh
8. Qust
9. Sana
10. Tagar
11. Zeera
12. Siyah etc.

 Also read : Ayurvedic/Indian system of Medicine
Also read : Homeopathic system of Medicine
 Also read : All System of Medicine


Sunday, 12 February 2017

All System Of Medicine

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 20:15 0 comments photo

Different type of "System of Medicine "
1. Traditional 'Chinese ' / '  kampon ' System of Medicine
2. ' Ayurvedic ' System of Medicine
3. ' Unani ' System Of Medicine
4. 'Homeopathic 'System Of Medicine
5. 'Siddha' system of Medicine
6. 'Naturopathy' and 'Yoga '
7. Bach flower Remedies
8. Aromatherapy




Homeopathic System of Medicine

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 19:06 0 comments

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 Homeopathic System Of Medicine :-
In comparison to other traditional system of medicine , Homeopathy is a newer one and has been developed in the 18 th century by " Samuel Hahnemann "
- a German Physician and Chemist . He proposed that the cause of disease itself can be used for its treatment .
Hahnemann put for the law of similars , which says that like :
cures (similae similibus curenture ) with tis principle , he showed that ' Cinchona ' can produce the symptos of ' Malaria ' . He succeeded in getting relevant result with a large number of extract prepared from :
1. Plants
2. Animals
3. Minerals .
He compiled all these observations called the origin of medicine .
In the Homeopathic systen , the drug treatment is not specified , but symptoms and the clinical condition of Patients .
This is based on the concept of proving and prover .
In a healthy person called prover , the symptoms , created by different doses of drug extracts are noted which is called proving and its specially considered physical , mental and emotional changes of the prover ,consequently. These symptoms are compared with a patient with similar symptoms and accordingly , same type of extract is given for treatment. During the treatment , the drug extracts are extreamly diluted , which is believed to cause potentiation and enhancement of curative effect .
The drug are extract in the form of curative , which is further diluted in forms of decimal or centesimal potencies . Various medicinal plants used in homeopathy are Homeopathic system .

Some example of Homeopathic medicines:-
 Examples of Homeopathic medicines -
1. Vegetable drugs :
eg. (arnica, belladonna, marigold, colchicum, hemlock, hypericum, opium, ergot, thuja , nux-vomica ) .
2. Animal drugs :
eg. (honey-bees, carbonate, cantharis).
3.Mineral and metals :
eg. (arsenic oxide, barium carbonate, calcium sulphate, mercuric, sulphur, copper, phosphorus, aluminium, platinum.


Ayurvedic/Indian system of Medicine

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 19:04 0 comments
AYURVEDIC/INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE ..:-                                          
Ayurveda is one of the most noted system of medicine in the world.Ayurveda is based on the hypothesis , the everyting in the universe is composed of 5 - basic elements , these elements are :                                                                                   
-Space ,
-Air ,
-Energy  ,
-Liquid , and
-Solid  .

They exist in the Human Body in combined from like :
-Vata (space and air)
-Pitta (energy and liquid)
-Kapha (liquid and solid ) .
Vata , Pitta , and Kapha togather are called "Tridosha" ( Three pillars of life). Tridosha exist in human body in 7- forms called Saptadhatu like :                                                                                                -Rasa (lyppha) ,
-Rakta (blood) ,
-Meda(adipose tissue)
-Mamsa (flesh) ,
-Majja (nervin tissue),
-Shukra (raproductive tissue ),
-Asthi (bones) .

These tissue are subjected to ' wear' and ' tear ' so that ' mala' ( excreatory tissue) is formed from them . When Tridosha , Saptadhatu and mala other is called as healthy condition , while imbalance causes a pathological condition.It is hypothesized that the five characters of the medicinal herbs like :
Rasa , guna , virya , vipak and prabhava can be applied to tread various pathological conditions .                                                                    

'Ayurvedic Pharmacy' propose five basic dosage forms like :

1. Swaras
2. Kalka
3. Kwath
4. Hima
5. Phant 

A number of the dosage forms like :
churna, avaleha, ghrita, sandhanakalpa,   and bhasm are appeared from them .                                                                                
Mostly all of them are polyherbal formulations .
Some important herbs in Ayurveda are -

1. Rauwolfia sepentia
2. Asparagus racemosus
3. Cassica angustifolia
4. Sesamum indicum
5. Withania somnifera
6. Aconitum napellus
7. Pipper longum etc.


Tuesday, 7 February 2017

Limit test for Iron (Fe²+ , Fe³+)

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 08:17 0 comments

Theory/Principle :-

The limit test of iron depends on the reaction of iron in ammonical solution in the presence of citric acid , with thioglycolic acid to obtain a pink to deep purple color . Citric acid forms a complex with iron which is not precipitated by ammonia . The color is obtained due to formation of  ferrous salt i.e ferrous thioglycolate [Fe ( HSCH2COO)2 ] which disappear in air due to oxidation.
Thioglycolic acid (H3CH2COOH) is a derivative of glycolic acid [CH2(oH)COOH] . It is a colorless liquid with undependent odour . The color product from a known amount of the substance is compared with the standard color obtain from a known amount of iron under the same experimental condition.

2HSCH2COOH + Fe3+ -->  Fe(HSCH2COO)2  +  2 H+ 

standard iron solution - Accurately 0.1726g of ferric ammonium sulphate is weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of 0.1 N H2SO4 and sufficient water to produce 1000 ml . Each ml of this solution contains 0.02 mg of iron. photi

 Procedure :-

(A) Preparation of test solution :-
0.5 gm of the substance be examined is dissolved in 40 ml of distilled water and transferred to a 'nesseler cylinder' . 2ml of a  20% w/v solution of iron free citric acid and 0.1ml of 'thioglycollic acid' are added , mixed and made alkaline with iron free ammonia solution. Dilute it to 50ml with distilled water and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Any color is produced is not more intanse than the standard solution.

 (B)Preparation of the standard solution :-
Standard iron solution is distilled with 40ml of water in a 'Nesseler cylinder' 2ml of a 20% of a 20% w/v solution of iron . Free citric acid are added, mixed and made alkaline with iron free ammonia solution. Dilute it to 50 ml with distilled water and allowed to stand for 5 minute.

Note :-

In the limit test of iron citric acid is added to prevent the precipitate of iron a with ammonia.

Sunday, 5 February 2017

Limit test for sulphate

Posted by suresh kumar gautam on 08:42 0 comments

Limit test of sulphate:-

☞ principle/theory:-

Limit test for sulphate pepends upon 
the precipitation of the sulphate with 
barium chloride (BaCl2) in the presence of 
hydrochloride (HCl) . The turbidity so 
btained is compared with a standard 
turbidity containing a  known amount of
 sulphate ions.

 SO4 --  +   BaCl2       --- →     BaSo4  +  Cl-

☞ Procedure:-

1. Preparation of test solution:-
A sample of specified quantity (1gm) is 
made in water (distilled water) in a nesseler 
cylinder and 2ml of concentrated HCl is
added , dilute it to 45
 ml with distilled water . 
Add immediately barium sulphate reagent
 (BaSo4) and stirred witth the glass rod and
 set a side for 5 - minutes.

2. Preparation of standrd solution:-

1ml of N/100 H2So4 (sulphuric acid) and
 2ml of HCl (hydrochloric acid) is taken in
 another nesseler cylinder .
Dilute it to 45 ml with distilled water and 5 ml
 of barium sulphate reagent is added. Stirred
immediately and set a side for 5 - minutes.

☞ Result:-

The turbidity in the test sample is viewed 
transversally and compared with the standard 
 solution . The turbidity of the sample solution 
should not be greater than the standard solutiom. 
Then only the sample pass the limit test , othewise it fails.

☞ Note:-

1.The precipitate of barium sulphate is insoluble.
2. It prevent the reaction other impurities such as 
oxalate, phosphate, citrate with barium ion.

 NEXT:-Limit test for chloride